Jesus as the Apex of Humanity

前些日子問一專研巴特的同學:Barth argues that Jesus Christ lives out the apex of what a human being can be, what do you think?

如此問的確是憶起十幾年前上巴特導論的時候,依稀記得有此印象。今天終於得以翻查他的羅馬書注釋,在他對三章廿二節的注釋中有如此話說:

His entering within the deepest darkness of human ambiguity and abiding within it is THE faithfulness. The life of Jesus is perfected obedience to the will of the faithful God. Jesus stands among sinners as a sinner; He sets Himself wholly under the judgement under which the world is set; He takes His place where God can be present only in questioning about; He takes the form of a slave; He moves to the cross and to death; His greatest achievement is a negative achievement. He is not a genius, endowed with manifest or even with occult powers; He is not a hero or leader of men; He is neither poet nor thinker:–My God, my God, why hast thous forasken me? Nevertheless, precisely in this negation, He is the fulfilment of every possibility of human progress, as the Prophets and the Law conceive of progress and evolution, because He sacrifices to the incomparably Greater to the invisibly Other every claim to genius and every human or aesthetic or psychic possibility, because there is no conceivable human possibility of which He did not rid Himself. Herein He is recognized as the Christ; for this reason God hath exalted Him; and consequently He is the light of the Last Things by which all men and all things are illuminated. In Him we behold the faithfulness of God in the depths of Hell. The Messiah of mankind, and here also God is found faithful. (Karl Barth, The Epistle to the Romans, trans. Edwyn C. Hoskyns, (London: Oxford University Press, 1933), 97).

這一段話當然充滿他對自由神學中進步(progress)的概念的反諷,但同時也反映出那神為中心,反映出:是卑微、順服的基督,而非人的進步,才能作為人之為人的極至。是順服以至於死。故此,他在說明了基督非天才、非英雄、非詩人、他只不過是奴隸–甚至甚麼都不是(total negation)後,吊詭的說他是He is the FULFILMENT of every possibility of HUMAN PROGRESS.

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One thought on “Jesus as the Apex of Humanity

  1. 版主這段引文中,巴特主要在解釋「就是 神的義,因著信耶穌基督,毫無區別地臨到所有信的人。」(羅三22,《新譯本》)首先須理解,巴特對此一「信」的認知,不是人的「相信」(believe)、「信靠」(trust)、「信心」(faith)或「信仰」(belief),而是上帝的「信實」(faithfulness),亦即祂在耶穌基督裡的信實(seine Treue in Jesus Christus)。也正因此,版主引巴特文的第一句應翻為「The faithfulness of God [Die Treue Gottes] is His entering and abiding in the deepest human ambiguity and darkness.」

    再者,究竟在何種意義下,耶穌基督能被理解為(如版主想強調的)人類可能性的「成全」或甚至「高峰」?這裡我必須一秉對《〈羅馬書〉譯義》1933年英譯版的批判,針對版主引文的一部分,加以重譯並摘錄:

    He goes to the cross [and] into the death. On the highest [and] at the destination of His way, He is a purely negative magnitude … . And precisely in this negation … He sacrifices to the impossible More and unintuitable Other … actually all conceivable human possibilities; precisely in it He is the Fulfiller of human possibilities of development, [i.e.] the possibilies which point beyond themselves and increase to the climax in the Law and Prophets. (cf. Barth, Der Römerbrief, 1922, 72. Emphasis Barth’s.)

    同時,我也摘錄個人認為勝過英譯本許多、道風書社的中譯本:

    他邁向十字架,邁向死亡。他在高處、在人生之旅的終點不折不扣是一個負數、一個否定形象……然而,正是由於這種負面性或否定性……正是由於他向一種不可能的「更多」、向一種非直觀的「另外」獻出了……一切可以想象的人類可能性,他實現了超越自我、在律法和先知那裡達到極致的人類可能性。(《〈羅馬書〉釋義》,2003,129。)

    兩段引文互相對照,看見巴特對耶穌否定性的深刻描繪:祂人生的最高點正是十架,祂人生的歸結正是死亡。在這否定性中,連同耶穌一起被當作祭物獻上的,正是一切能設想出的人類可能性,而接受祭物的對象,正是與人迥然不同的「無限相異者」。

    在此否定性當中,所有人類可能性既已與耶穌同被獻上,這些可能性還能被實現或成全嗎?若然,被實現或成全的是何種人類可能性?在此關鍵問題上,英譯的缺陷再次出現;因照巴特原義,沒有「成全」(die Erfüllung,fulfillment),只有「成全者」(der Erfüller,fulfiller)。此一區別絕非吹毛求疵,卻是至關緊要。正如詩歌《今要主自己》(Himself http://www.mbcsfv.org/chinese/library/hymncampanions/063.html)歌詞「前我貪求恩賜,今要賜恩者」所點出的,恩賜(gift)不同於賜恩者(giver);巴特也謹慎地使用「成全者」一字而非「成全」。他期待其讀者注意的,不是「成全」,更不是「人類」「進步」的「可能性」,而是那位「成全者」。

    最後,巴特也很嚴謹地定義了被耶穌基督成全的人類可能性。在他看來,人類進步的可能性不在於天才、英雄、詩人、思想家等等――這些已在十架上被上帝徹底棄絕。人類進步的真正可能性,並不回指自身,高舉自身之被成全;它們指向自身以外,亦即耶穌基督:在律法和先知那裡達到高峰的,若非耶穌基督,又能何指?

    若繼續讀該段引文的後文,此意象將更清楚顯現:

    因此他〔即耶穌基督〕受到上帝的提攜,在此他被視為基督……救世主意味著人的終結〔das Ende des Menschen〕。但甚至在這時,尤其在這時,上帝有信實。以上帝之信實為標誌的這新的一天是隨著人「被揚棄」之日〔dem Tag des „aufgehobenen” Menschen〕破曉的。(《〈羅馬書〉釋義》,2003,129。)

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