朱熹讀書法/ 釋經學

觀書,當平心以觀之。大抵看書不可穿鑿,看從分明處,不可尋從隱僻處去。聖賢之言,多是與人說話。若是嶢崎,卻教當時人如何曉。(節。)

觀書,須靜著心,寬著意思,沈潛反覆,將久自會曉得去。(儒用。)

放寬心,以他說看他說。以物觀物,無以己觀物。(道夫。)

以書觀書,以物觀物,不可先立己見。

讀書,須要切己體驗。不可只作文字看,又不可助長。(方。)

學者當以聖賢之言反求諸身,一一體察。須是曉然無疑,積日既久,當自有見。但恐用意不精,或貪多務廣,或得少為足,則無由明耳。(祖道。)

讀書,不可只專就紙上求理義,須反來就自家身上(以手自指。)推究。秦漢以後無人說到此,亦只是一向去書冊上求,不就自家身上理會。自家見未到,聖人先說在那裏。自家只借他言語來就身上推究,始得。(淳。)

今人讀書,多不就切己上體察,但於紙上看,文義上說得去便了。

According to Zhu, the reading of a text should be based on text (yi shu guan shu以書觀書) before an understanding can be reached.  Based on his belief that the words of the sages (shengxian聖賢) are directed to people, the audience, the meanings of the text are therefore not hidden.  He thought that, instead of hurrying oneself to reach one’s own idea, one should calm down, allow an openness for the text to speak, and reflect on it repeatedly;  By and by, the meaning would be unveiling itself.  Having said this, he, however, emphasized that one should bring the text to oneself and experience (tiyan體驗) it, make it personal, instead of treating the text as if it was but a bunch of words.  A scholar should apply the words of the sages in his own life, and “experience with close scrutiny” (ticha體察).  In other words, he is against a reading simply focusing on a pure syntactic and semantic meaning.

Translated and paraphrased.

《朱子語類,卷十一,學五,讀書法下》

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